Centrifugal pumps represent the most widely used model today for pumping and transferring fluids. These pumps and fluidment handling equipment offer unbeatable performance for the transport of fluids over long distances, surpassing positive displacement pumps. 

Do you want to know how they work? What types of centrifugal pumps can you find on today’s market? If you are thinking of investing in an industrial pump, read on and discover everything that centrifugal pumps can bring to your business!

Characteristics and principle of operation

To begin with, what is a centrifugal pump? Unlike positive displacement pumps, based on hydrostatics, centrifugal pumps belong to the category of rotodynamic pumps, which base their operation on hydrodynamics. These equipments have an impeller with blades, whose movement transforms the kinetic moment of the fluid into kinetic and potential energy. When the impeller is activated, the pressure and speed of the outlet increases with respect to the inlet, allowing the fluid to be driven through the volute or pump body to the discharge flange.

In addition to industrial centrifugal pumps, there are also domestic models, mainly used for water supply both in homes and in commercial premises. At an industrial level, these pumps and fluid handling equipment have countless applications, highlighting, for example, its use for the treatment of wastewater, quarry water or light oils or slips.

Types of centrifugal pumps

The current catalog of industrial centrifugal pumps offers a wide range of options, capable of adapting to the demands of each sector and type of activity. Here are the most commonly used types of centrifugal pumps:

  • According to the direction of the outlet flow espect to the axis, we can distinguish three basic types of centrifugal pumps: radial flow pumps, in which the flow is perpendicular to the shaft, axial flow pumps, in which the flow direction is parallel to the shaft, and heliocentrifugal or mixed flow pumps.
  • Depending on the shell design, centrifugal pumps can be classified into volute and turbine pumps.
  • If we take into account the position of the axis of rotation, we can find horizontal centrifugal pumps or vertical centrifugal pumps, that require less space for installation.
  • Within industrial centrifugal pumps, self-priming centrifugal pumps deserve special mention, with interesting operating advantages thanks to their self-priming capacity. How do these self-priming pumps work? When moving, the impeller creates a zone of negative pressure that facilitates the air entry  into the pump, emulsifying with the fluid. As it enters the priming chamber, the lower weight of the air causes it to be dislodged through the discharge pipe, while the liquid recirculates in the pump body. When all the air has been expelled, the pump is already primed and starts to work like a conventional centrifugal pump.

Beyond these general characteristics, knowing the specific operational advantages offered by the different models of centrifugal pumps will also be very useful for you to choose the optimal solution, taking into account the particular needs of your business. Reliable and efficient technology, so your company can run at full capacity!